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622 Battle of Ophlimos ★ ★ ★ ★
Outcome: A Byzantine victory as a result of clever tactics August 622
War  &  Enemy: Enemy:
Sassanid Persians
Byzantine-Persian Wars
Battle Type:
Pitched Battle
The Battlefield Ophlimos Location:
At the Lycus river valley, in the eastern Pontus (Black Sea region) in Northern Turkey)
Modern Country:
  The Byzantines(emperor:  Heraclius) The Enemies
Commander: Emperor Heraclius General Shahrbaraz
Forces: Unknown Unknown
Background story: On April 5, 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Patriarch Sergius and general Bonus. He sailed to Bithynia and then marched into the interior of Anatolia where he began to concentrate his forces. He trained them in drill and maneuver, revived their broken moral and launched a counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war.
He marched to the east in order to outflank the Persians in Armenia. Shahbaraz was able to block in time the passes to the east, but Heraclius out-maneuvered them and placed his forces in the rear of the Persians who realized this only 2 weeks later.
The Battle:
Shahbaraz attempted a night attack that a full moon canceled. Heraclius held a position at Ophlimos (or Ophelimos) in the eastern Bithynia (or Pontus) at the Lycus river valley. The Persians did not like to fight in open field and they did not engage in battle. After some waiting and maneuvering the Byzantines, realizing that a Persian detachment was spying their moves, faked a retreat. The Persians left their defensive positions and rushed to chase the fleeing enemy and they were attacked by the elite Optimates and had to retreat, suffering an unexpected defeat.
Aftermath: After Ophlimos the Persians evacuated the region but Heraclius had to return to Constantinople later that summer, to deal with the Avar threat in the Balkans.