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363 Battle of Maranga ★ ★ ★ ★
Outcome: A victory of the Romans under emperor Julian on their way out of Persia 22 June 363
War  &  Enemy: Enemy:
Sassanid Persians
Later Roman-Persian Wars
Battle Type:
Pitched Battle
The Battlefield Maranga Location:
Between Ctesiphon and Samarra, in Iraq
Modern Country:
  The Byzantines(emperor:  Julian the Apostate) The Enemies
Commander: Emperor Julian Merena
Forces: 65,000 Unknown
Losses: Light Heavy
Background story: After the victorious battle of Ctesiphon, Julian had to retreat after realizing that Ctesiphon was too strongly defended to be taken while his army was running out of supplies. So decision was taken to retreat to the north. The Sassanid army implemented a scorched earth policy while harassing Romans all their way back to Roman Mesopotamia.
The Battle:
Saasanid cataphract
After a number of skirmishes during the retreat of the Roman army to the north, on June 22, the Sassanids under the command of Merena, the Persian Master of Horse and two of Shapur's sons deployed for battle near Maranga.
The Sassanid army lined up with cataphracts in the center and clibanarii armed with both lance and bow on the wings. The elephants were placed to the rear along with the bowmen and levies. Julian formed his army in a crescent formation with the wings pointed toward the Persians, and advanced rapidly to avoid a prolonged missile contest. After hard, drawn-out fighting, the Romans pushed back the Sassanids. Having suffered heavy casualties, the Persians retired in some disorder, covered by the bows of their cavalry. The Romans suffered only light losses.