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1365 Battle of Adrianople ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
Outcome: The Ottomans captured the city and established in the Balkans 1365
War  &  Enemy: Enemy:
Ottoman Turks
Byzantine-Ottoman Wars
Battle Type:
City Capture
The Battlefield Adrianople Location:
Adrianople (modern Edirne, Turkey) in Eastern Thrace near the borders with Greece and Europe.
Modern Country:
  The Byzantines(emperor:   John V Palaiologos) The Enemies
Commander: Unknown Lala Shahin Pasha
Forces: Unknown Unknown
Background story: The Ottoman Turks took Gallipoli after an earthquake in 1354. It was their first stronghold in Europe and it became a springboard for military operations in Thrace against the Byzantines and Bulgarians.
Most of eastern Thrace was overrun by Ottoman forces within a decade and permanently brought under Orhan's control by means of heavy colonization. The initial Thracian conquests placed the Ottomans strategically astride all of the major overland communication routes linking Constantinople to the Balkans’ frontiers, facilitating their expanded military operations. Byzantium was cut from any of its potential allies in the Balkans or in Western Europe.
Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos was forced to sign an unfavorable treaty with Orhan I in 1356 that recognized his Thracian losses.
In 1360 Orhan I died and Murad I became Sultan. Murad’ first major objective was Adrianople, the most important Byzantine military, administrative, and economic center in Thrace.
The Battle:
Murad I organized a campaign in Europe sending Lala Shahin Pasha into Thrace. Lala Shahin became the first Beylerbey of Rumelia. He captured Dydimoteichon in 1360 and in 1365 defeated a weak Byzantine army to seize Adrianople.
The Ottoman capital moved from Bursa to Adrianople in 1366 and remained the capital until the conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Noteworthy: Before Adrianople, most Europeans regarded the Ottoman presence in Thrace as merely the latest episode in the endless barbarian raids in the Balkans. After Murad designated Edirne as his capital, they realized that the Ottomans were there to stay.
Aftermath: Murad then defeated the Serbs and Turkish rule was established in the Balkans for the next 500 years.