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363 Battle of Ctesiphon ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
Outcome: Emperor Julian won an important victory but failed to capture Ctesiphon June 363
War  &  Enemy: Enemy:
Sassanid Persians
Later Roman-Persian Wars
Battle Type:
Surprise Attack
The Battlefield Ctesiphon Location:
ancient Ctesiphon in modern Iraq
Modern Country:
  The Byzantines(emperor:  Julian the Apostate) The Enemies
Commander: Emperor Julian Merena
Forces: 65,000 Unknown
Losses: 70 killed 2,500 killed
Background story: On campaign against the Sassanid Shapur II, Emperor Julian advanced down the Euphrates to destroy Pirisabora and Maiozamalcha, then moved east against Ctesiphon, on the Tigris.
The Battle:
By mid-May, the army had reached the vicinity of the heavily fortified Persian capital, Ctesiphon, where Julian partially unloaded some of the fleet and had his troops ferried across the Tigris by night. In a battle before the gates of the city, the Romans defeated the Persians, driving them back into the city. Although the Romans won, the Persian capital was not taken. Meanwhile the main Persian army was still at large and approaching (under Shapur II), while the Romans lacked supplies and a clear strategical objective. After a council of war on 16 June 363, Julian decided that the best course of action was to lead the army back to the safety of Roman borders retreating northward.
Aftermath: Though not a big battle, it was a turning point. It led to the retreat and failure of the Romans, the death of Julian and the strengthening of the Persian empire which became a super-power and a major enemy for Byzantium in the following centuries.