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576 Battle of Melitene  (Battle of Malatya) ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
Outcome: A Byzantine victory and a narrow escape of the Persian king 576
War  &  Enemy: Enemy:
Sassanid Persians
Byzantine-Persian Wars
Battle Type:
Pitched Battle
The Battlefield Melitene Location:
Malatya, Southeastern Turkey
Modern Country:
  The Byzantines(emperor:  Justin II) The Enemies
Commander: General Justinian Shah Khosrau I
Forces: Unknown Unknown
Background story: Less than a decade after the fifty-year peace treaty of 562, tensions between Byzantium and Persia amounted at all points of intersection between the two empires' spheres of influence. The war was triggered by pro-Byzantine revolts in areas of the Caucasus under Persian hegemony and also by the denial of the Byzantines to pay the annual tribute.
The Battle:
Three years after victory at Dara, Khosrau I led a new offensive from Caucasus into Anatolia. His attempts to attack Theodosiopolis and Caesarea were thwarted, but he managed to sack Sebasteia before withdrawing to Melitene in the northwest. There he was confronted by General Justinian, the magister militum of the East. Facing encirclement on the Upper Euphrates at Melitene, Khosrau and his army abandoned their baggage and fled across the Euphrates river with heavy losses.
Noteworthy: Khosrau was reportedly so shaken by this fiasco and his own narrow escape that he established a law forbidding any of his successors from leading an army in person.
Aftermath: The Byzantines exploited the Persian disarray by raiding deep into Caucasian Albania and Azerbaijan, launching raids across the Caspian Sea against northern Iran.