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844 Battle of Mavropotamos  (Mauropotamos) ★ ★ ★ ★
Outcome: A Byzantine defeat by the Arabs 844
War  &  Enemy: Enemy:
Arabs (Abbasids)
Byzantine-Muslim Wars
Battle Type:
Pitched Battle
The Battlefield Mavropotamos Location:
Mauropotamos river, Asia Minor, either in northern Bithynia or in Galatia
Modern Country:
  The Byzantines(emperor:  Theodora) The Enemies
Commander: Theoktistos Abu Said
Forces: Unknown Unknown
Background story: In 844, the Arabs of the east, under the command of Abu Said, had invaded the Byzantine lands of Asia Minor, aided perhaps by the forces of the emir of Melitene Omar al-Aqta, who often helped the caliphs of Baghdad in their raids against Byzantium. It appears that the Arabs, moving through the themes of Minora Asia had reached Bosporus. Empress Theodora ordered Theoktistos (Logothetes tou Dromou and one of the regents of young Michael III) to move immediately against the invaders.
The Battle:
In 844 Theoktistos left Constantinople embarking on a new campaign against the Arabs and he finally confronted them in the area of Mavropotamos, whose precise location is disputed (it is either a tributary of the Sangarius River in Bithynia or of the Halys River in Cappadocia). During the battle, the Byzantine forces suffered a crushing defeat, as a great number of soldiers were killed in the battlefield, while many others defected to the Arab camp. Immediately after his defeat, Theoktistos returned to Constantinople.
Aftermath: A civil war broke out among the Abbasids soon after the battle, and they were unable to exploit their victory. A 6-year truce was consequently concluded in 845, followed by a prisoner exchange.