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1328-1331 Siege of Nicaea ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
Outcome: Capture of the city of Nicaea by the Ottoman Turks after a 4-years siege 1328-1331
War  &  Enemy: Enemy:
Ottoman Turks
Byzantine-Ottoman Wars
Battle Type:
City Capture
The Battlefield Nicaea Location:
Nicaea (modern Iznik), on the eastern shore of Lake Iznik
Modern Country:
  The Byzantines(emperor:  Andronikos III Palaiologos) The Enemies
Commander: Unknown Sultan Orhan I
Forces: Unknown Unknown
Background story: By 1326, lands around Nicaea had fallen into the hands of Osman I. He had also captured the city of Bursa, establishing a capital dangerously close to the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. In 1328, Orkhan, Osman's son, began the siege of Nicaea, which had been in a state of intermittent blockade since 1301. The Ottomans lacked the experience and the ability to control access to the town through the lakeside harbor. As a result, the siege dragged on for several years without conclusion.
In 1329, emperor Andronicos III attempted to break the siege. He led a relief force to drive the Ottomans away from both Nicomedia and Nicaea. After some minor successes, however, the force suffered a defeat at Pelekanon and withdrew.
That was the last presence of the Byzantine army in Asia Minor.
The Battle:
When it was clear that no effective Imperial force would be able to restore the frontier and drive off the Ottomans, the city fell in 1331.
Aftermath: The fall of Nicaea had a serious impact on the morale and the prestige of the Byzantines. The city was the capital in the period of the Latin Empire, a symbol of Christianity and the most important Asian city in the Empire.